# Help:Hū tō ādihtenne tramet

Wikibēc is wiki, and þæt mǣnþ þæt ǣnig cann ēaðe ādihtan ǣnigne dǣl and habban þās hwierfunga gesewen sōna. This page is the reference for wiki markup. You may also want to learn about:

Is swīðe ēaðe tō ādihtenne wiki-tramet. Simply click on the "Ādihtan þisne tramet" link at the top or bottom (also on the sidebar) of a Wiki page to change the page itself, or click on "Discuss this page" link and then on "Ādihtan þisne tramet" to write on the corresponding talk page. This will bring you to a page with a text box containing þone ādihtendlican traht þæs wiki-trametes.

Then type away, wrīt sceorte ādihtunge scortnesse on the small field below the edit-box and when finished press "Save"! You can also preview your changes before saving if you like. Depending on your system, pressing Enter while the edit box is not active (there is no typing cursor in it) may have the same effect as pressing Save.

It is often more convenient to copy and paste the text first into your favorite text editor, edit and spell check there, and then paste back into the browser to preview. This way, you can also keep a local backup copy of the pages you authored so that you can make changes offline.

## Minor edits

When editing a page, a logged-in user has the option of flagging the edit as a "minor edit". When to use this is somewhat a matter of personal preference. The rule of thumb is that an edit of a page that is spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearranging of text should be flagged as a "minor edit". A major edit is basically something that makes the entry worth relooking at for somebody who wants to watch the article rather closely, so any "real" change, even if it is a single word. This feature is important, because users can choose to hide minor edits in their view of the Recent Changes page, to keep the volume of edits down to a manageable level.

The reason for not allowing a user who is not logged in to mark an edit as minor is that vandalism could then be marked as a minor edit, in which case it would stay unnoticed longer. This limitation is another reason to log in.

## The wiki markup

In the left column of the table below, you can see what effects are possible. In the right column, you can see how those effects were achieved. In other words, to make text look like it looks in the left column, type it in the format you see in the right column.

You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference. If you want to try out things without danger of doing any harm, you can do so in the Sandbox.

### Sections, paragraphs, lists and lines

What it looks like Hwæt þu wrītst

## Nīwe Tōdāl

### Undertōdāl

#### Under-undertōdāl


== Nīwe Tōdāl ==

=== Undertōdāl ===

==== Under-undertōdāl ====


Ān ānfeald nīwlīne has no effect on the layout. These can be used to separate sentences within a paragraph. Sume ādihteras findaþ þæt this aids editing and improves the diff function.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

A single [[newline]]
has no effect on the layout.
These can be used to separate
sentences within a paragraph.
Some editors find that this aids editing
and improves the ''diff'' function.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.
You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.
You can break lines<br/>
without starting a new paragraph.
• Lists are easy to do:
• start every line with a star
• more stars means deeper levels
* Lists are easy to do:
** start every line with a star
*** more stars means deeper levels

1. Numbered lists are also good
1. very organized
2. easy to follow
# Numbered lists are also good
## very organized
## easy to follow
• You can even do mixed lists
1. and nest them
• like this
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* like this
Definition list
list of definitions
item
the item's definition
; Definition list : list
of definitions
; item : the item's definition
A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

• This is primarily for displayed material, but is also used for discussion on Talk pages.
: A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A manual newline starts a new paragraph.

IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines won't wrap;
it gets its own dotted-line box;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
* pasting preformatted text;
* algorithm descriptions;
* program source code
* ascii art;

WARNING If you make it wide, you and hence less readable. Never start ordinary lines with spaces.

 IF a line starts with a space THEN
it will be formatted exactly
as typed;
in a fixed-width font;
lines won't wrap;
it gets its own dotted-line box;
ENDIF
this is useful for:
* pasting preformatted text;
* algorithm descriptions;
* program source code
* ascii art;
Centered text.
<center>Centered text.</center>
A: above

and below.

Mainly useful for separating threads on Talk pages.

A horizontal dividing line: above
----
and below. 

.
What it looks like What you type
Sue is studying discrete mathematics.
• First letter of target is automatically capitalized.
• Internally spaces are automatically represented as underscores (typing an underscore has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).

Thus the link above is to http://www.Wikibooks.org/wiki/Discrete_mathematics, which is the article with the name "Discrete mathematics".

Sue is studying [[discrete mathematics]].

Link to a section on a page, e.g.

List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco (links to non-existent sections aren't really broken, they are treated as links to the page, i.e. to the top)
[[List_of_cities_by_country#Morocco]]
Same target, different name (""): answers.
Same target, different name:
[[Wikibooks FAQ|answers]]
Endings are blended into the link: testing, genes
Endings are blended
into the link: [[test]]ing, [[gene]]s

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses: kingdom.

Automatically hide namespace: Staff lounge.

The server fills in the part after the | when you save the page. Next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. A preview interprets the abbreviated form correctly, but does not expand it yet in the edit box. Press Save and again Edit, and you will see the expanded version. The same applies for the following feature.

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses:
[[kingdom (biology)|]]. 
Automatically hide namespace:
[[Wikibooks:Staff lounge|]].
When adding a comment to a Talk page,

you should sign it. You can do this by adding three tildes for your user name:

Karl Wick

or four for user name plus date/time:

Karl Wick 08:10 Oct 5, 2002 (UTC)
When adding a comment to a Talk page,
you should sign it. You can do this by
: ~~~
or four for user name plus date/time:
: ~~~~
The weather in London is a page that doesn't

exist yet.

• You can create it by clicking on the link.
• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• Have a look at how to start a page guide and Wikibooks's naming conventions.
• After creating a page, search for its title and make sure that everyone correctly links to it.
[[The weather in London]] is a page
that doesn't exist yet.

Redirect one article title to another by putting text like this in its first line.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

For a special way to link to the article on the same subject in another language, see Wikibooks:Interlanguage links.

External link:
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]
Or just give the URL: http://www.nupedia.com.
• In the all symbols must be among: A-Z a-z 0-9 ._\/~%-+&#?!=()@ \x80-\xFF. If a URL contains a different character it should be converted; for example, ^ has to be written %5E (to be looked up in).
Or just give the URL:
http://www.nupedia.com.

Link to an article in another Wikimedia project:

This is a special shortcut so you don't have to write out the whole URL.

Link to an article in another Wikimedia project:
*[[w:Main Page|Wikipedia]]
*[[m:Main Page|Meta]]
*[[wikt:Main Page|Wiktionary]]
*[[wikisource:Main Page|Wikisource]]
*[[commons:Main Page|Wikimedia Commons]]
*[[q:Main Page|Wikiquote]]
*[[n:Main Page|Wikinews]]
*[[wikispecies:Main Page|Wikispecies]]
*[[w:de:Hauptseite|German language Wikipedia]]

A picture:
A picture: [[Image:Wiki.png]]

or, with alternate text (strongly encouraged)

[[Image:Wiki.png|Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia]]

s render alternate text when not displaying an image -- for example, when the image isn't loaded, or in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud. See Alternate text for images for help on choosing alternate text.

Percent completed images:
100% -
75% -
50% -
25% -

[[Image:100%.png]]
[[Image:75%.svg]]
[[Image:50%.svg]]
[[Image:25%.png]]

Clicking on an uploaded image displays a description page, which you can also link directly to: Image:Wiki.png

[[:Image:Wiki.png]]


Sound


[[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|Sound]]


ISBN 0123456789X

## Character formatting

What it looks like What you type

Emphasize, strongly, very strongly.

• These are double and triple apostrophes, not double quotes.
''Emphasize'', '''strongly''',
'''''very strongly'''''.

You can also write italic and bold if the desired effect is a specific font style rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulae:

F = ma
• However, the difference between these two methods is not very important for graphical browsers, and many people choose to ignore it.
You can also write <i>italic</i> and <b>bold</b>
if the desired effect is a specific font style
rather than emphasis, as in mathematical formulas:
:<b>F</b> = <i>m</i><b>a</b>
A typewriter font for technical terms.
A typewriter font for <tt>technical terms</tt>.
You can use small text for captions.
You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.
You can strike out deleted material

and underline new material.

You can <strike>strike out deleted material</strike>
and <u>underline new material</u>.

Umlauts and accentas: (See Wikibooks:Special characters)
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

Punctuation:
¿ ¡ « » § ¶
† ‡ • —

&iquest; &iexcl; &laquo; &raquo; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &mdash;

Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥

£ ¤
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;

Subscript: x2

Superscript: x2 or x²

• The latter method of superscript can't be used in the most general context, but is preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12

C² / J m.
Subscript: x<sub>2</sub>
Superscript: x<sup>2</sup> or x&sup2;
&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> =
8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup>
C&sup2; / J m.
Greek characters:

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho;  &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi;
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;


Math characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ →
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔
→ ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge; &rarr;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; &rArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &harr;
x2   ≥   0 true.
• To space things out, use non-breaking spaces - &nbsp;.
• &nbsp; also prevents line breaks in the middle of text, this is useful in formulas.
<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&ge;&nbsp;&nbsp;0 true.


Complicated formulae:
$\displaystyle \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$


Suppressing interpretation of markup:
Link → (<i>to</i>) the [[Wikibooks FAQ]]

• Used to show literal data that would otherwise have special meaning.
• Escapes all wiki markup, including that which looks like HTML tags.
• Does not escape HTML character entities.
<nowiki>Link &rarr; (<i>to</i>)
the [[Wikibooks FAQ]]</nowiki>

Commenting page source:
not shown in page

• Used to leave comments in a page for future editors.
<!-- comment here -->

## Tabulan

HTML tabulan cunnon bēon swīðe nytlic efenwel, swā þu ofer canst sēon. For details on how to use them and discussion about when they are appropriate, see Wikibooks:How to create tables.